Types of cancers – Tests for confirmation

Types of cancers – Tests for confirmation
Highlights

Types of cancers – Tests for confirmation, There are over 100 types of cancers that attack any part of the body. There are also many sub-types among them.

There are over 100 types of cancers that attack any part of the body. There are also many sub-types among them. Generally the process of destruction of old cells and creation of new cells in a regulated manner happens. Breaking of this balance and unlimited growth of new cells is known as “cancer”. Despite definite reason is not known, smoking, certain kinds of viruses, chemicals, radiation may be the reasons for the birth of cancer cells. Therefore, the risk of certain cancers is more in people engaged in some professions. Generally, tumors are of two types. Benign tumors which are harmless and malignant tumors which are harmful. Benign tumors are not dangerous to life and cannot enter other parts of the body and cluster of cells around. These can be totally removed with small surgery. But dangerous tumors spread to nearby cells and other parts of the body through lymph ducts, creating new cells there. Any type of tumor in brain is dangerous since brain is covered with skull. Even if the tumor is not dangerous, possibility of emergence of other problems with much pressure is more. The cancer appearing as normal problem in the initial stage, cough, headache, nausea, vomiting, unhealed sore ,fatigue, decline in appetite and weight, fever like symptoms become severe without relief as the cancer advances. The severity can be noticed through TNM system. T means (tumor) N means lymphosodes , M means Metastatis (spreading to other parts). The cancer stage will be confirmed depending upon their severity. Cell, internal part of cell look in an unusual shape when cancer cells are analyzed. One cell differs from other cell in shape. Besides cells are improperly arranged, they also increase unlimitedly and consequently the size of the tumor will be extraordinarily growing. Cancer treatments depend upon their age, other health problems, Severity of cancer, spreading to other parts or not, and therefore the importance of personalized treatment methods is increasing. Nevertheless, different kinds like brain, breast, lung, survical cancers are there, still they are divided into many kinds. For example there are over 10 kinds of breast cancers. Depending upon the type, hormone therapy is also essential in certain cases , Among the sub types , certain cancers are not only frequently seen , but amenable to treatments quickly also. Cancer tumor will be stiff devoid of pain in the initial stage. Let us know what the different names of cancers such as carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia are. 1.carcinoma; this is a cancer that appears on skin, layer in internal parts or external layer . 2. Sarcoma;-this is a cancer that attacks bones, fat, cartilage, blood vessels or cluster of cells that exists on those parts. 3. Lymphoma;- this is a cancer that is seen in lymph glands pertaining to immune system and concerned cluster of cells. 4. Leukemia;- this cancer appears in blood vessels formed in bone marrow. Cancer type will be confirmed depending upon the cancer affected part. For example, bone is termed “osteo” in Latin language. Similarly cancer is considered as “ osteo sarcoma” Likewise glands are called “Adino carcinoma”in Latin language and the cancer that attacks glandular cells in breast is known as “ Breast Adino Carcinoma”. There are so many prefixes like sir names in Latin as Kadro, Erithro, Himanjio, Hepato, lipomelano, Mylo, Mayo etc. After confirming other health problems , treatments not only become easier , but will be completed in a specific period to a maximum extent also. Consolidated effort of different experts is very essential for the follow up care after treatments , since giving treatments and to confirm the difficult cancer treatment methods are tougher. The role of the surgical oncologist is paramount. Besides the roles of Medical Oncologists, Radiation Oncologists Nuclear specialists are equally vital. Surgery, Radiation, Chemotherapy are almost considered “late stage” if the cancer is not amenable to treatment. It should be managed with medicines when it is spread to other parts. Depending upon the necessity, X-Ray, Ultrasound, Scan, CT Scan, Nuclear Scan, MRI Scan, PET Scan, biopsy, Fine Needle Aspiration cytology (FNAC) Blood markers,(AFP, CA-125,CEA, DR-70 like tests are essential to accurately confirm through physical examination for the cancer of external parts. Necessary tests are conducted in follow up care up to first Five years, since cancer reattacks mostly. If cancer does not recur in first Five years, it is almost healed, but still there are instances where cancer is noticed in some people even after 10, 20 years also and hence it can be viewed that cancer is within control only.

By: Dr Ch Mohana Vamsy

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