Tuberculosis: causes, treatment

Tuberculosis: causes, treatment
Highlights

It is estimated that around 40 percent of Indian population is infected with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, the bacteria that causes TB in human beings, but the vast majority of them have latent TB infection rather than TB Disease. According to latest WHO estimates, the incidence of TB disease in India is around 2.1 million cases annually.

It is estimated that around 40 percent of Indian population is infected with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, the bacteria that causes TB in human beings, but the vast majority of them have latent TB infection rather than TB Disease. According to latest WHO estimates, the incidence of TB disease in India is around 2.1 million cases annually.

Malnutrition/undernutrition, which reduces immunity, makes a person susceptible to many diseases, including TB. Social determinants like poverty, overcrowding, poor ventilation, under nutrition, etc., have a role in spread of TB.

Under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), diagnosis and treatment facilities including anti-TB drugs are provided free of cost to all TB patients. Designated microscopy centres have been established for quality diagnosis for every one lakh population in the general areas and for every 50,000 population in the tribal, hilly and difficult areas. More than 13000 microscopy centres have been established in the country.
More than six lakh treatment centres (DOT Centres) have been established near to residence of patients to the extent possible. All government hospitals, Community Health Centres (CHC), Primary Health Centres (PHC), sub centres are DOT centres. In addition NGOs, Private Practitioners (PPs) involved under the RNTCP, community volunteers, Anganwadi workers, women self-help groups etc. also function as DOT providers/DOT Centres. Drugs are provided under direct observation and the patients are monitored so that they complete their treatment.
Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant TB (PMDT) services for the management of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) and TBHIV collaborative activities for TB HIV co- infection are being implemented throughout the country.
Under the universal immunization programme, BCG vaccine is administered for prevention of serious forms of childhood TB, like tubercular meningitis.
Government has also formulated Standards for TB Care in India which lay down standards for social inclusion for TB, providing information to vulnerable groups and developing synergies with the social welfare schemes.
The Health Minister, Shri J P Nadda stated this in a written reply in the Lok Sabha here today.
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