Types of cancers & tests to confirm them

Types of cancers & tests to confirm them

Types of cancers & tests to confirm them. There are over 100 types of cancers that attack any part of the body. There are also many sub-types among them. Destruction of old cells and creation of new cells take place regularly in a human body.

There are over 100 types of cancers that attack any part of the body. There are also many sub-types among them. Destruction of old cells and creation of new cells take place regularly in a human body. Unlimited growth of new cells, by breaking this balance is known as ‘cancer’. Despite definite reason is not known, smoking, certain kinds of viruses, chemicals, radiation may be the reasons for the birth of cancer cells. Therefore, the risk of certain cancers is more in people engaged in some professions.

Generally, tumours are of two types. Benign tumours are harmless, and malignant tumours are harmful. Benign tumours are not dangerous to life and cannot enter other parts of body and cluster of cells around. These can be totally removed with a small surgery. But dangerous tumours spread to nearby cells and other parts of the body through lymph ducts, creating new cells there. Any type of tumour in brain is dangerous since brain is covered with skull. Even if the tumour is not dangerous, possibility of emergence of other problems with much pressure is more.

The cancer appears as normal problem in the initial stage. Symptoms like cough, headache, nausea, vomiting, unhealed sore, fatigue, decline in appetite and weight become severe without relief as the cancer advances. The severity can be noticed through TNM system. T means tumour, N means Iymphosodes, M means spreading to other parts. The cancer stage will be confirmed depending upon their severity. Cell and internal part of cell look an unusual shape when cancer cells are analysed. One cell differs from other cell in shape.

Besides cells are improperly arranged, they also increase limitlessly and consequently the size of the tumour will grow extraordinarily. Cancer treatments depend upon the age, other health problems, severity of cancer, spreading to other parts or not, and therefore the importance of personalised treatment methods is increasing. Nevertheless, different kinds like brain, breast and cervical cancers are there, but they are divided into many kinds. For example there are over 10 kinds of breast cancers. Depending upon the type, hormone therapy is also essential in certain cases.

Among the sub types, certain cancers are not only frequently seen, but amenable to treatments quickly also. Cancer tumour will be stiff devoid of pain in the initial stage. Let us know what the different names of cancers such as carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, and leukaemia are:

1. Carcinoma: This is a cancer that appears on skin, layer in internal parts or external layer.

2. Sarcoma: This is a cancer that attacks bones, fat, cartilage, blood vessels or cluster of cells that exist on those parts

3. Lymphoma: This is a cancer that is seen in lymph glands pertaining to immune system and concerned cluster of cells.

4. Leukaemia: This cancer appears in blood vessels formed in bone marrow. Cancer type will be confirmed depending upon the cancer affected part. For example, bone is termed “ostero” in Latin language. Similarly cancer is considered as “ostero sarcoma” likewise glands are called “Adino carcinoma” in Latin language and the cancer that attacks glandular cells in breast is known as “Breast Adino Carcinoma”.

There are so many prefixes like sir names in Latin as Kadro, Erithro, Himanjio, Hepato, Limpmelano, Mylo, Mayo etc. After confirming other health problems, treatments not only become easier, but will be completed in a specific period to a maximum extent also. Consolidated effort of different experts is very essential for the follow up care after treatments, since giving treatments and to confirm the difficult cancer treatment methods are tougher. The role of the Surgical Oncologist is paramount. Besides the roles of Medical Oncologists, Radiation Oncologists, Nuclear specialists are equally vital. Surgery, Radiation, Chemotherapy are must for all cancers except blood cancer.

If cancer is not coming under control, it can be understood as “late stage”. X-ray, Ultrasound, Scan, CT Scan, Nuclear Scan, MRI Scan, PET Scan, biopsy, Fine Needle Aspiration cytology(FNAC), Blood markers (AFP, CA-125, CEA, DR-70 like tests are carried out if the situation demands. Necessary tests are conducted in follow up care up to first five years because cancer re-appears so often. If cancer does not reoccur in first five years, it is almost healed. But there are instances where cancer is noticed in some people even after 10 - 20 years.

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